Frame Rates: Conforming from 25P to 24P

In this tutorial, Aharon Rabinowitz shows you how to take  25P footage (PAL) and quickly conform it to 24 P (Film Frame Rate)  using eithe Adobe After Effects or Final Cut Studio. Also covered are some workflow tips for After Effects for quickly setting up Renders.

30 thoughts on “Frame Rates: Conforming from 25P to 24P”

  1. Aharon;
    Congratulations. I wish you could take a couple of months off but there’s no such thing as real vacations in this business.

    At any rate. In this tut it appears as though the animation codec settings include a setting of 30fps. (approx 10:31 mark). I am sure this is just me not knowing what I’m doing but I’m sure others will be confused as well.
    Once again congratulations and unlimited success to you.

  2. It’s confusing, I know – I should have mentioned it. Ignore the FPS options in the quicktime format options. They don’t work – it;s part of the quicktime interface that can;t be accessed, although it seems like you can.

    if you try and change it, when you exit the dialog, you will likely get a message telling you you have to change the frame rate in the render settings.

  3. Hi aharon
    thanx for the tutorial but one thing i didnt understand
    whats the difference if i choose 24fps and not 23.97fps?
    and why is the 24fps there anyway if you dont use it?
    i always use 25 fps in my projects but i want to know the answer
    thank you

  4. There are a few reasons, but one major reason for the difference is that 23.976 converts to NTSC (29.976) much more easily than true 24 FPS. For people working in broadcast this is very important (unless you use PAL which is 25FPS).

  5. Thanx for the reply
    the thing is you strongly said not to use the 24 and use the 23.976 i dont get it will it be that obvious?
    lets say im not converting it to NTSC
    also the same thing i dont get is 29.976 comparing to 30
    any chance of a quick tutorial on these? i dont think there is one explaining that over the internet

  6. it will not be obvious to the eye, in terms of how the clip works alone. However, what we call 24P is actually 23.976 (or 23.98) and if you don’t use that Frame rate and instead use 24 FPS, and then combine it with other footage that uses solid 24P, you may run into trouble. Often not, but when you start messing around with frame rates that don’t match, issues start to pop up.

    So if you want to work with whatever frame rates you want, go ahead, but as an industry standard, 24P is 23.976/23.98 – not 24. And there is a reason they use standards, because they help keep you out of trouble if you keep to them.

  7. Bit of noob question, can i use this method on a project that has been fully edited, or will it mess up the sound?

  8. You can (they do it for film). But it will slow down or speed up the audio by about 4% (really 4.1% I think) depending on what direction your going (25FPS 24FPS). So you’ll need to take the entire audio and change the pitch (not speed) by 4% up or down. Bring it into an audio editor like Audition and the tools for that are there.

  9. Hi Aharon,
    you solved a lot of questions with this well explained tutorial.
    But thers is one thing I want you to ask: What framerate would you suggest for a digital film production in a Pal-Land? I mean there is no NTSC issues, so wouldnt it make sense to work in exact 24.000 fps? The mainreason I assumed this would be better, is beacause when your digital file gets printed to the filmmaterial you can´t print like “a thousand of a frame”, you can only print one full frame at a time. Or is 23,976 fps a worldwide standard and filmprinter machines are allready prepared for this numbers?

    Thanks a lot!

  10. Hi Illd,
    For same reason that Aharon is saying that standard NTSC is 23,976, the standard PAL is 25. So now apply all reasons from Aharon not to mix 24 with 23,976 to 25 with 24

  11. Oh Aharon, thankx a lot for the render queue tip. (changing the destination directory for the first comp and then adding the rest). This was such a pain until you gave this tip.!!!!!! You are super cool.

  12. @Julio Fernandez: So what is your point? I dont understand exactly what you are tryng to tell me (sorry I am no native english speaker).

  13. Sweet, this is a great tip for me since i’ll be working both NTSC and PAL cameras, and 24p as the final output. I’ll say this b4 xmas, thanks Aharon.

    However in your video tutorial, the Windows part:
    Under the format (quicktime), Animation is set along with the best settings, but i noticed the frame rate was left at 30? Was this meant to be 23.976? I’m just scared to get it wrong my side.

  14. darn it, i was just about to mentioned i just read that particular comment before mine got approved. Sorry about that.

    Thanks again Aharon.

    Note: You may unapprove this comment if it seems non constructive. Cheers.

  15. Hi Aharon,

    I am Tanmoy, hv seen yr animations. Wonderful, fantastic. But u hv done this all with adobe after effects ? Will u teach me lesson on Light Wraps & also Frame Rates. I am very eager to learn. U r genious in animation.

    Awating yr response


  16. Aharon,

    Thank you for your tutorials, they are all so helpful. I have a question. I am cutting a huge documentary on HDV 1080p24. Some of the footage is HDV 1080p25 PAL. I need to get this PAL footage into NTSC. Your tutorial was perfect, EXCEPT for the fact that when I conform, it makes a new NTSC Quicktime with a different frame size. It goes from 1920×1080 PAL to 960×540 NTSC. Almost! I cannot for the life of me figure out why it goes to 960×540. Any help is greatly appreciated! Thanks.

  17. that must be happening in FCP. If you’ve followed my steps, and are confomring with just Cinema tools, it should only effect frame rate.

    Can you verify that you are following my steps exactly. If so, check the frame size before putting it into FCP.

  18. Thanks Aharon. I’m strictly using cinema tools for this process, and going with your tutorial step by step. It goes in as a 1920×1080 PAL 25fps and out as a 960×540 NTSC 23.98 (exactly half the size). The frame rate conversion is working and I am very relieved, but it’s literally shrinking the frame size in half. The weird thing is that it’s making my new video (960×540) the same size as the video window where it is opened IN cinema tools. I am stumped.
    Thank you for any help!

  19. Thanks for all the great tutorials Aaron! Can you recommend a resource to help me understand settings such as 29.97/30 fps, video formats, and when to use each etc?

  20. Brandon – as an AE animator, a great text to always have on hand is Creating Motion Graphics with After Effects, by Trish and Chris Meyer. They cover some of this in their book. Although, I’m sure there are a lot of books out there that cover this in more detail.

  21. I really enjoyed this tutorial. I would like to know if I should change the frame rate in the quicktime-animation (render que) from 30 to 25 since I will be creating a PAL dvd in Encore?

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